FIO cheat sheet

With any luck I’ll turn this into a real blog post soon, but for the moment: a cheat sheet for simple usage of fio to benchmark storage. This command will run 16 simultaneous 4k random writers in sync mode. It’s a big enough config to push through the ZIL on most zpools and actually do some testing of the real hardware underneath the cache.

fio --name=random-writers --ioengine=sync --iodepth=4 --rw=randwrite --bs=4k --direct=0 --size=256m --numjobs=16

For reference, a Sanoid Standard host with two 1TB solid state pro mirror vdevs gets 429MB/sec throughput with 16 4k random writers in sync mode:

Run status group 0 (all jobs):
  WRITE: io=4096.0MB, aggrb=426293KB/s, minb=26643KB/s, maxb=28886KB/s, mint=9075msec, maxt=9839msec

Awww, yeah.

378MB/sec for a single 4k random writer, so don’t think you have to have a ridiculous queue depth to see outstanding throughput, either:

Run status group 0 (all jobs):
  WRITE: io=4096.0MB, aggrb=378444KB/s, minb=378444KB/s, maxb=378444KB/s, mint=11083msec, maxt=11083msec

That’s a spicy meatball.

Dual-NIC fanless Celeron 1037u router test – promising!

fanless_celeron_1037u_box_routingFinally found the time to set up my little fanless Celeron 1037u router project today. So far, it’s very promising!

I installed Ubuntu Server on an elderly 4GB SD card I had lying around, with no problems other than the SD card being slow as molasses – which is no fault of the Alibaba machine, of course. Booted from it just fine. I plan on using this little critter at home and don’t want to deal with glacial I/O, though, so the next step was to reinstall Ubuntu Server on a 60GB Kingston SSD, which also had no problems.

With Ubuntu Server (14.04.3 LTS) installed, the next step was getting a basic router-with-NAT iptables config going. I used MASQUERADE so that the LAN side would have NAT, and I went ahead and set up a couple of basic service rules – including a pinhole for forwarding iperf from the WAN side to a client machine on the LAN side – and saved them in /etc/network/iptables, suitable for being restored using /sbin/iptables-restore (ruleset at the end of this post).

Once that was done and I’d gotten dhcpd serving IP addresses on the LAN side, I was ready to plug up the laptop and go! The results were very, very nice:

root@demoserver:~# iperf -c springbok
Client connecting to, TCP port 5001
TCP window size: 85.0 KByte (default)
[  3] local demoserver port 48808 connected with springbok port 5001
[ ID] Interval       Transfer     Bandwidth
[  3]  0.0-10.0 sec  1.09 GBytes   935 Mbits/sec
You have new mail in /var/mail/root
root@demoserver:~# iperf -s
Server listening on TCP port 5001
TCP window size: 85.3 KByte (default)
[  4] local demoserver port 5001 connected with springbok port 40378
[ ID] Interval       Transfer     Bandwidth
[  4]  0.0-10.0 sec  1.10 GBytes   939 Mbits/sec

935mbps up and down… not too freakin’ shabby for a lil’ completely fanless Celeron. What about OpenVPN, with 2048-bit SSL?

Client connecting to, TCP port 5001
TCP window size: 22.6 KByte (default)
[  3] local port 45727 connected with port 5001
[ ID] Interval       Transfer     Bandwidth
[  3]  0.0-11.6 sec   364 MBytes   264 Mbits/sec 

264mbps? Yeah, that’ll do.

To be fair, though, LZO compression is enabled in my OpenVPN setup, which is undoubtedly improving our iperf run. So let’s be fair, and try a slightly more “real-world” test using ssh to bring in a hefty chunk of incompressible pseudorandom data, instead:

root@router:/etc/openvpn# ssh -c arcfour jrs@ 'cat /tmp/test.bin' | pv > /dev/null
 333MB 0:00:17 [19.5MB/s] [                         <=>                                  ]

Still rockin’ a solid 156mbps, over OpenVPN, after SSH overhead, using incompressible data. Niiiiiiice.

For posterity’s sake, here is the iptables ruleset I’m using for testing on the little Celeron.


# p4p1 is WAN interface

# NAT pinhole: iperf from WAN to LAN
-A PREROUTING -p tcp -m tcp -i p4p1 --dport 5001 -j DNAT --to-destination


:LOGDROP - [0:0]

# create LOGDROP target to log and drop packets

##### basic global accept rules - ICMP, loopback, traceroute, established all accepted
-A INPUT -s -d -i lo -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -p icmp -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT

# enable traceroute rejections to get sent out
-A INPUT -p udp -m udp --dport 33434:33523 -j REJECT --reject-with icmp-port-unreachable

##### Service rules
# OpenVPN
-A INPUT -p udp -m udp --dport 1194 -j ACCEPT

# ssh - drop any IP that tries more than 10 connections per minute
-A INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 22 -m state --state NEW -m recent --set --name DEFAULT --mask --rsource
-A INPUT -i eth0 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 22 -m state --state NEW -m recent --update --seconds 60 --hitcount 11 --name DEFAULT --mask --rsource -j LOGDROP
-A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT

# www
-A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp --dport 443 -j ACCEPT

# default drop because I'm awesome

##### forwarding ruleset
# forward packets along established/related connections

# forward from LAN (p1p1) to WAN (p4p1)
-A FORWARD -i p1p1 -o p4p1 -j ACCEPT

# NAT pinhole: iperf from WAN to LAN
-A FORWARD -p tcp -d --dport 5001 -j ACCEPT

# drop all other forwarded traffic


Emoji on Ubuntu Trusty

OK, so this is maybe kinda useless. But I wanted an emoji ONCE for a presentation, and the ONCE I wanted it, the fool thing wouldn’t display on my presentation laptop and I had to scramble at the last minute to do something that wasn’t quite as entertaining. So here’s how you fix that problem:

you@box:~$ sudo apt-get update ; sudo apt-get install ttf-ancient-fonts unifont

Poof, you got emojis. In my case, the one I wanted was this:


Yes, I AM comfortable in my masculinity, why do you ask…?